Two days late in responding here, but I think it would be safe to say that anything I can grow here, you can grow better!
Despite the similar latitudes, I'm in a Zone 3b here. Even so, people in the same or even somewhat more northern latitudes in Wisconsin or Michigan, for example can grow more than we can. The Great lakes contribute a lot to the local climates. Even Duluth on the west side of Superior is slightly more temperate than here.
That said, I think you also have more precipitation to deal with and so may want to do something like Ralf in Germany and make a rain shelter - you definitely will want a raised bed.
So here are some species that I'm certain you could grow:
Note that the above species from different locations will have different results. I can grow E. viridiflorus from South Dakota (Black Hills area), but I can't grow those that hail from Arizona.
Species that you probably can grow easily:
O. basilaris (with shelter from rain)
and no doubt some more that I didn't think of.
Finally, there are a number of popular cultivars and hybrids of Opuntias that would be no sweat for you to grow in your area - such as "Chrystal Tide", "Smithwick", and "Little Grey Mound".
Also, there are a
All Cacti are succulents, but not all succulents are Cacti